Geography

GEOGRAPHY OF ESKISEHIR
 

A little part of Seyitgazi, one of the counties of Eskisehir, is under the influence of Aegean region and the whole Saricakaya County and some part of the city center with Mihalliccik County are under the influence of Black Sea region. However, the geographical characteristic of Eskisehir is to that of Interior Anatolia region.
 

Area of the province which is surrounded by Bozdag and Sundiken Mountains at North, Emirdag at South, Orta Asya Valley at East, Turkmen Mountain at West is about 13653 km2. That much of area covers 1.8% of Turkey. Elevation of the city center from sea is 792 m.
 

Eskisehir province is surrounded by Emirdag and Insaniye counties of Afyonkarahisar at South, Yunak county of Konya at Southeast, Polatli, Nallihan and Beypazari counties of Ankara at East, Goyuk county of Bolu at Northwest, Golpazari, Sogut, Bozuyuk counties of Bilecik and Kutahya province at West.

About 22% of the province area is composed of mountains while plains have %26 share of the area.

 

Topographical structure of Eskisehir province which is Northwest corner of Interior Anatolia, is consists of plains in Sakarya and Porsuk river basins and mountains surrounding those plains. Bozdag-Sundiken mountain chain from North, Turkmen Mountain located at the east corner of Interior West Anatolian threshold, Yazilikaya Plateau and Emirdag from West and South, surround plains of river basins.

The valleys generally became deep as a result of wearing of outer factors for a long time. Shoulders of valleys have a little inclination and wearing of shoulder is strong. Top of the hills are pressed and round except new formations in the province where closed basin situation is not observed. There is continuous slope towards to sea.

 

Mountains surround plains of province from different sides. The shapes that are formed as a result of different kinds of wearing and dissolution are generally clear in mountainous areas. There are plateaus lying from plains to mountains in different elevations. There are Bozdag and Sundiken Mountains that are Interior Anatolian mountain chains at North of the province on the direction of west-east and the extensions goes to Sakarya river that constitutes province border.

 

Sivhisar Mountains which begin inside the arc of Sakarya, at Southeast corner of Eskisehir province, lies in the direction of Southeast-Northwest direction. Sivrihisar Mountains lying towards Kaymaz sub district is located on a plateau which has a threshold appearance.
 

After passing Kaymaz sub district, high hills are observed on the wide threshold which has a plain appearance. That structure of wavy area with plain like appearance continues to West. That structure forms Turkmen Mountains at the South of Sarisu Plain and unites with Domanic Mountains outside the borders of province. The most important altitude between Kaymaz sub district and Eskisehir city center is the foot of Koca Kir Plateau going down to Porsuk Plain. While going to West from Porsuk Creek, one reaches to Kucuk Turkmen Mountain at 1255m height. At far more West there are Kozdogru and Goktepe hills.

 

The real Turkmen Mountain begins at South of Porsuk Dam and lies to Sakarya Plain with its extensions. The highest point of province is the top of Turkmen Mountain with 1825m. Other important high points are Kirgil, Kuyu, Yaylacik, Deve Erigi, Deve hills and Oluk Mountain.



VEGATATION


Interior Anatolia steppes, North Anatolia and West Anatolia forests constitute vegetation in Eskisehir. On South side of Sundiken Mountains, facing Porsuk Valley, there are oak bushes after 1000 m and then squat oak trees are seen. If the side of Sundiken Mountains where after 1300m, black pine trees are observed and contains Turkmenbaba, Esekli Turkmen Hill and Sakarya Valley of Bozdag is examined (especially the area between Tandirlar and Dagkuplu villages are very narrow), it is observed that the land is covered with black pine trees. There are red pines also among black pines at the place. There is ground Scotch pines around Tastepe and Mihaliccik. High oaks are seen in pine forests near Yapildak. In the plateaus at South of Eskisehir and Cifteler Plain there is no forest but distinctive steppe plants. Vegetation in Sarisu Porsuk Valley contains festuca species, veronica and thyme. The vegetation on the shores of Porsuk and Keskin brooks is composed of willows, poplars, elms and groves.

 


RIVERS


 

Sakarya River: The river gets out from the place called “Sakaryabasi” inside the borders of Cifteler County. That water springs then unites with Seydisu and Sarisu flowing towards Southeast. It forms the border between Ankara-Eskisehir provinces near Cakmak Village and then turns to North direction. It unites with Porsuk Creek at place called Kiran Hamami and flows toward North direction. After Sariyer dam its flow direction changes to West. 


Porsuk Creek and Branches: The river is formed of two branches. The first of them is Porsuk stream. Its source is in Murat Mountain. It flows in Altintas basin that has a small slope. The other branch comes from West of Kutahya. This branch which passes from North of the city is called “Porsuk Creek”. Two branches unite in Cukurova and passes by Kalburcu Farm near Incesu Village at borders of Eskisehir province. Then it unites with Kunduzlar, Kargin Brook, Ilicasu, Mollaoglu Brook, Sarisu, Keskin-Muttalip Brook respectively and takes Purtek Creek into while approaching to Sakarya River.

 
 

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS
 



The borders of Eskisehir province are within the river basins of Sakarya River with Porsuk Creek and Sarisu Creek. Slope of these river basins are not so high, so river formed very wide plains by accumulating materials which they carried from higher parts of basin to lower areas. The ratio of plain area to total province area is about 26%. The topography of Eskisehir is ordinary formed of plains surrounded by mountains and plateaus.


Porsuk Plain begins in Kutahya province border, lies towards Northeast direction through Porsuk Creek basin. It goes toward East after passing Eskisehir city center and enters to the borders of Ankara province.

Porsuk Plain is surrounded by Bozdag and Sundiken Mountains at North, Sivrihisar Mountains and East extensions of Turkmen Mountains at South. The plain is in a form of narrow valley having high slope from Kutahya province border to Eskisehir city center. This part called as “Porsuk Trough”, start to widen as it approaches to the city center. The width of plain, which reaches to about 13 km between Sultandere and Muttalip villages, narrows at East near Cavlum village and declines until 1 km width. After that throat it widens again and reaches to its maximum width. The width of plain reaches 21 km between Sepetci and Fevziye villages. Thereafter it begins to narrow again. The plain becomes especially a narrow valley after Refahiye village.


Porsuk Plain, covered with a thick alluvial soil layer, is very productive. Wheat, barley, rye, oat, corn, rice and sugar beet are planted in the plain.

 

The west extensions of Porsuk Plain ends in a plain named “Sarisu Plain” which lies on both sides of Sarisu Creek on the direction Northwest-to-Southeast direction.

 

The plain surrounded by Bozdag at North and Kucuk Turkmen Dagi at South is about 840 m above sea level. The plain beginning from North of Inonu lies towards to East direction and is not so inclined. The widest region of Sarisu Plain is between Inonu and Station. It reaches to 4 km width at this point and narrows step by step towards to East. Sarisu Plain widens again after passing a throat in Oklubali region. The plain unites with Porsuk Plain at the West of Karagozler village near Eskisehir city center. Wheat, barley, rye, corn, rice and sugar beet are planted in Sarisu Plain, covered with a thick alluvium soil layer.


Upper Sakarya Plain at Southwest is the second widest basin of Eskisehir province after Porsuk Plain. Upper Sakarya Plain is surrounded at North by Sivrihisar Mountains and North extensions of Turkmen Mountains, at West by East extensions of Turkmen Mountains and at South by Emirdag. This wide basin is between 800 to 1000 m above sea level.

 

Upper Sakarya Plain enters into Sivrihisar county center through Yagverviran and Gerenli villages at East. The width of plain that is 14 km at the beginning, then it decreases to 4 km at North of Sivrihisar.


Yukari Sakarya Plain is not as flat as Porsuk Plain. The most discernible bulge is “Kirgiz Mountain” at 1301 m height at West part of Mahmudiye County. There are Congercali and Cerkezcali hills in the same region. Cal Mass, which is the highest point at Southeast of Cifteler County center, covers a wide area with its extensions.
 

The widest part of Yukari Sakarya Plain is between Aksakli and Yukari Kepen villages. The width of the plain reaches to 76 km in that region.

 

The plain which is covered partly with a thick soil layer is not as productive as Sarisu and Porsuk Plains. Generally wheat, barley, rye, corn, sesame, sun flower and sugar beet are planted in Yukari Sakarya Plain.
High plateaus in Eskisehir province are over the East extensions of Turkmen Mountain and over Bozdag, Sundiken Mountains. Sivrihisar Mountains that part Sakarya and Porsuk river basins have plateaus also.
Eskisehir province is generally covered with plains and mountains. Plateaus cover a small part as much as 0.6% of Eskisehir province.


General geographical structure of Eskisehir province is formed of Sakarya and Porsuk river basins and mountains surrounding those basins. As a result, province land is divided into parts by main valleys and numerous smaller valleys connected to those main valleys. The valley which gathers all streams of the river basin in which Sakarya River flows, is called as “Sakarya Valley”. This valley is narrow and deep at the very first resource area of Sakarya River on the East extensions of Turkmen Mountain mass. The base of valley widens after Seyitgazi region and reaches to Ankara province border. At that part, Yukari Sakarya Plain exists over wide base of the valley. Sakarya Valley turns to North near Ankara province border and unites with Porsuk Creek. This part of the valley is called “Middle Sakarya Valley”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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